What is stone lofting technology? What are the general steps
In recent years, various architectural decoration projects, such as villas, hotels, clubs, office buildings, business centers and so on, have been more and more decorated with stone. Some of the decoration effects and requirements have already been designed by the professional design department during the construction design of the project. Some of them were decorated only after the completion of the civil works. There is no specific decoration design drawing, especially for the stone parts. As there is no uniform national standard like glass curtain wall and aluminum alloy, and the specific requirements of each customer vary greatly, it is necessary to have both stone expertise and processing technology, as well as engineering technicians who understand the civil works to map according to the site civil works and draw engineering drawings according to the customer\\\\\\\\s requirements and assumptions. This adopted technical language can also meet the technical characteristics of stone processing and achieve the decorative effect required by customers, which is commonly known as stone lofting technology. Hereinafter referred to as lofting. Let\\\\\\\\s talk about the experience of stone lofting and discuss with colleagues. First, the basic requirements of lofting personnel As engineers and technicians in stone lofting, we must first understand the properties of stones, such as different stone varieties, matching and coordination of color patterns, physical and mechanical properties of stones, processing properties, etc. Secondly, we should have certain knowledge and experience in machining technology. Although stone is a brittle material, there are many processes, steps and mechanical processing are very similar. Stone processing is basically the same as the mechanical processing of material preparation, rough grinding, polishing and packaging, except that the equipment and tools used are different. Thirdly, as the technical personnel of stone lofting, they should also have basic knowledge of industrial and civil architecture, and be able to understand construction drawings, structural construction drawings, even plumbing installation, elevation and side construction drawings. Finally, we also need to know the basic methods of stone installation, such as dry hanging or wet pasting, the matching relationship between stone decoration parts and other materials, etc. II. Visual inspection: That is, on-site inspection of building entities to determine which dimensions to measure, what to base on, where to measure in detail, what are the important dimensions that must be guaranteed, the surrounding decoration materials and performance, the civil structure of the building, etc., for example, the lofting of a rotating staircase, is first determined by on-site observation: ( 1 ) the position of the center of the circle ( 2 ) the starting and ending coordinates of the arc ③ Projection radius ( 4 ) projection arc length ( 5 ) the elevation of each section ⑥ Design scheme and platform of overall trend of spiral ladder All landowners starting point end point and transition point convergent problem ⑧ Handling of the Special Structure of the Stair Pet - name ruby its dependence on the surrounding decorations and so on 2. Determine the benchmark. The benchmark of lofting is very important. It is the reference point ( line ) for field measurement of various dimensions and next geometric checking and drawing. In principle, we should first find a space that can take care of as many dimensions as possible, pop up a datum line, and then get other datum lines by making vertical lines. However, due to the confusion of the general construction site, the bullet line is limited not only by the site but also by the time. For architectural decoration, the precision requirement is not too strict, so it is faster and more convenient to use the cylinder, wall, beam, door and window, horizontal plane, etc. of civil engineering as approximate reference, especially when civil engineering is more complex or multi-storey construction is measured, it is more convenient and accurate to use the column as reference. If there is no ideal civil wall or column as the benchmark, pull the wire at the appropriate place and then mark or place a flat object on the ground as the benchmark. 3, measurement should be targeted. First, it is necessary to determine the size of the graphic. In general, the horizontal and vertical dimensions shall be measured according to the determined datum by using the coordinate tracing method. And measure the key dimensions, and be able to draw graphics and guide processing according to the measured dimensions, such as length, width, height, chord length, bow height, arc length, etc. Second, we should consider the technological characteristics of stone processing, carry out necessary splitting and parts division, and reach a consensus with customers. 4. Records. When setting out on site, all drawings are sketches, which are inconvenient to write and require high speed. If you do not pay attention to them, there will be a phenomenon that a certain size does not know which place it refers to, or that the horizontal direction is confused with the vertical direction. It is therefore recommended that: A. Text direction shall be marked according to the drafting standard format. B when the size is too large, use local magnification to draw, and do not crowd together many sizes. C, generally, it is faster and more convenient to record in the form of plan view. 5, control the size error. When measuring, it is better to measure more than one dimension. It seems that the distance between the two ends of the parallel dimension should be measured to determine how big the error of civil works is and how well you know the error of civil works. Attention should be paid to the relationship between the total size and the size of each segment. In general, the error should not exceed 20 RRAN, and on-site review should be carried out to avoid conflicting measurement results and ensure the accuracy of measurement. 6. Reserve the allowance for adaptation. Combined with various decoration methods, the size allowance should be reserved on the basis of measurement. According to the size of the civil engineering error, a certain adjustment allowance is reserved for the stone part; According to the type of touch opening, reserve appropriate trimming allowance and so on. 7. Review. After setting out on site, even if there is no time to draw a regular drawing, at least draw a neat overall drawing to verify the accuracy of each measured dimension so as not to miss the dimension or pen error, otherwise, drawing and processing will not be possible after leaving the site. In short, stone lofting is a highly technical work, requiring knowledge and space imagination. At the same time, generally speaking, lofting is the pre-sales service work for the order, which requires active communication with the customer, gaining the trust and support of the customer and understanding their intentions, so as to achieve the desired results and win the customer. This needs to be explored and summarized in practice.
Key Points of Marble Mosaic Bonding
In order to achieve the best bonding effect for marble mosaic bonding, the following points should be paid attention to: First of all: clean the fracture surface of stone without dust and particles, keep the fracture surface dry and free of moisture, if necessary, clean it with high pressure air pump, remove the movable fragments, and then apply adhesive to the fracture surface to make it even and not too thick, then immediately butt and squeeze it tightly. The adhesive slightly overflows. Note that the board must be cleaned up before the glue is prepared. Otherwise, the glue may become invalid. For thick plates over 2 cm, vertical bonding should be the best effect, that is, the stone should be vertically erected after bonding, and some supports can be made to vertically place the stone by using the self-weight of the stone itself. In the process of bonding, the upper plate can be lightly knocked with a wooden hammer or rubber hammer, slightly exerting pressure to make the joint as small as possible. For 1cm thick plate, it is better to lay paper on a flat platform, put the stone to be bonded well, and immediately butt and squeeze it after the fracture surface is coated with glue. After the glue hardens, the next step can be carried out. For the bonding of other stones, such as stone crafts, stone furniture and special-shaped stones, this procedure is also roughly the same. The arc panel should be vertically glued, the flower line should be horizontally glued, and all gluing should be as small as possible to achieve the best gluing effect without affecting the aesthetic appearance. The bonding of parquet marble must be smooth and sticky. First, paper, preferably oil paper, should be spread on the platform, which is not easy to stick on. Then, the glass fiber net should be paved. The parquet that has been pieced up in advance should be coated with a piece of glue. Based on the angle ruler and the guiding ruler, it should be bonded one by one and squeezed one by one, usually with the board facing downward until all the bonding is completed. In order to increase the strength of some flowers after drying, a layer of glue can be evenly coated on the back of the glued flowers and gently brushed with a brush to greatly strengthen the firmness of the flowers. Of course, following the method of mosaic, stones with more cracks can be reinforced with a back reinforcement net to improve the strength of the stones. At present, many stone production lines have added a process of attaching glass fiber reinforced mesh after polishing, the purpose of which is to increase the strength of the stone.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Marble Dining Table
Marble table is divided into natural marble table and artificial marble table. Natural marble table is elegant and beautiful, but the price is relatively expensive, and it is not easy to clean due to the natural lines and pores to make the stains and oil deep. The artificial marble dining table has high density, oil stain is not easy to penetrate, and cleaning is easy. Advantages and Disadvantages of Marble Table Disadvantages: Most families choose solid wood tables, but the popularity, texture and quality of marble tables have become the pursuit of more and more families. Here are some relevant characteristics of the lower marble table: 1, marble because the surface is smooth, so it is generally not easy to wipe off the seeping water and oil in time. For a long time, only to brush varnish again. 2. The marble table is more classy, but not as good as the solid wood floor is more conducive to health. 3. Marble dining table is more suitable for large-sized apartments because marble is heavy to handle. Not very suitable for moving. Advantages: 1. No deformation; High hardness and wear resistance. 2. It is not afraid of acid and alkali corrosion, will not rust, does not need oiling, is not easy to stick dust, is easy to maintain and simple to maintain, and has a long service life. 3. No scratches, no resistance to constant temperature conditions, and the original physical properties can be maintained at normal temperature. 4. It is not affected by moisture, and the plane is fixed. Option: Many people prefer marble tables, so what is the right way to choose marble tables? Marble table, we need to check his appearance quality, in fact, as long as it is marble, there must be some defects, mainly to see if you will pick a better one. Marble is naturally formed, and it is inevitable to have defects. Moreover, the quality of marble is directly affected by the quality of processing equipment and measuring tools. Moreover, regarding the pattern of marble, marble has a noble feature in that its pattern is mottled and colorful. However, if you want to have a better decorative effect, you should choose the one with the same hue and small color difference, which will look better and more harmonious, but the price is generally not cheap. But after all, sometimes the price is the same, but there are also many different qualities. This is the question of cost performance. The glossiness of marble surface cant be ignored, if it can have the same glossiness as mirror surface, then the decorative effect is also very good. How to maintain marble table: 1. The marble dining table is still well maintained and has a natural texture on the surface of marble, which has a protective effect on marble. For marble dining table cleaning, you should use a product with mild lotion and cotton cloth to wipe it. Wipe it in one direction as much as possible. 2. If the marble table surface is already worn out, it will be more complicated to maintain it. You can wipe it gently with steel wool first, and then polish it smoothly with an electric polishing machine, so that the worn surface will be repaired. The maintenance of marble table can also use liquid scrubbing agent, clean the dirt surface with neutral scrubbing agent such as lemon juice or vinegar, and finally clean it with clean water, which is also a maintenance method for marble. 3. During the use of the marble table, strong acid and strong alkali should be avoided to clean stubborn stains, which will damage the marble surface. The marble table should be kept dry and clean in daily maintenance. Many users also use waxing and polishing for marble table surface, which is actually the best maintenance method for marble surface. The maintenance of marble table is easier than that of solid wood table. If you pay more attention to some small details in your life, you can make the table the same as the new one.
Causes of stone floor damage
Reasons for stone ground damage: 1. The settlement and tearing of the foundation part of the ground cause crack damage to the stone on the surface. 2. The ground stone is damaged due to external damage. 3. The choice of marble to lay the ground from the stone holder will leave the future trouble. On the one hand, people tend to only pay attention to color tone when choosing stone materials, and do not consider the difference in weather resistance and wear resistance between marble and granite. On the other hand, marble was the most imported stone material at first. At that time, the processing technology of granite was not as advanced as it is now, and the color and style of marble were mostly elegant. This makes it a fashion to choose marble for indoor use, which is also one of the main reasons why there are more marble problems on the stone floor. 4. Natural defects of marble. Some marbles have many natural defects, such as cracks, sand holes, looseness, inclusion, etc. If these defects are not well repaired and remedied in advance, it will take the lead in causing lesions and damages in the defective areas and thus extend once they are laid on the ground and contaminated with moisture and some harmful pollutants. Like silver beige, golden beige, brown net, etc. 5. Wet environment. The main component of marble is calcium carbonate, which will expand under the action of water, so the loose part of the stone structure will burst open first, leaving a stone pit on the marble floor. The formation of this stone pit will continue to be pulverized in a humid environment, making the surrounding stones loose in qualitative change. 6, the wrong protection method. As far as some owners and constructors are concerned, even though they have painted marble with protective agent in advance, they still have problems laying it on the ground. On the one hand, it is because the cracks and loose parts of the stone have not been repaired well, and the back of the stone will be destroyed quickly due to the large water pressure generated by moisture. On the other hand, although the front of the marble is also protected, the moisture on the ground will also enter the interior of the stone along the cracks and loose parts of the stone, increasing the humidity of the stone, thus forming a vicious circle. 7. Abrasion damages the luster of marble on the surface. Marble has low hardness and poor strength, so marble floors, especially those with more behavior, will soon lose luster. Such as walking in lang, hall, counter, etc.